Rural Psychology

Inhaltsverzeichnis

1 Ruralness as a Psychological Construct.- Definitions of Rural.- Rural Values and Attitudes.- Manning Theory.- Isolation.- The Contents of This Volume.- References.- 2 Characteristics of Rural America.- Demographic Characteristics.- Definitions.- Population.- Geographic Distribution.- Education, Occupation, and Income.- Summary.- Rural Social Institutions.- Economy.- Government.- Education.- Family.- Rural Social Organization.- Rural Communities.- Rural-Urban Differences.- Social Discord in Rural Appalachian Communities.- Conclusions.- References.- 3 Interaction in Rural Families.- Characteristics of Rural Families.- Familism.- Analgesic Subculture Model.- Family Dominance Patterns.- Parenting.- Education.- Implications of Findings.- Familism.- Parenting.- Family Dominance Patterns.- Conclusions.- References.- 4 Cross-Cultural Research in Psychological Development in Rural Communities.- Cross-Cultural Findings on Rural-Urban Differences in Cognitive Growth.- Piagetian Research.- Sorting and Classification.- Memory Tasks.- Linguistic Development.- Summary.- Another View of Rural-Urban Differences.- Cognitive Development in Three Norwegian Subcultures.- Cognitive Development in Three Hungarian Subcultures.- Discussion: Rural and Urban Patterns of Development.- Norway and Hungary.- Conclusions.- References.- 5 Issues of Linguistic Development in Rural Subcultures in the United States.- The Basis of Difference.- Language Learning and Rural Subcultures.- Linguistic Structure.- Language Socialization.- Institutionalized Discontinuity.- Conclusion.- References.- 6 Is there a Psychology of the Rural Aged?.- What Is Rural? Who Are the Rural Aged?.- Deficiencies in Definitions of Rural Aged.- Differences between Rural and Nonrural Aged.- Independence, Dependence, and Isolation.- Need for and Availability of Services.- Housing.- Income.- How They See It.- Loneliness.- Is Rurality An Important Variable?.- Environments and Adaptations.- Understanding the Rural Aging.- References.- 7 Environmental Perception and Cognition in Rural Contexts.- Spatial Cognition.- Structural Elements of Cognitive Maps.- Variations in Cognitive Maps.- Spatial Cognition in Nonurban Settings.- Research Directions.- Perception of Natural Hazards.- Perception of Risk.- Choices in Response to Natural Hazards.- Research Directions.- Scenic Quality Analysis.- Scenic Quality Criterion Measures.- Predictors of Scenic Quality.- Related Issues.- Research Directions.- Concluding Remarks.- References.- 8 Locus of Control and the Rural Experience.- The Locus of Control Construct and Its Cognates.- The Shaping of Causal Expectancies and Their Ramifications.- Rural and Urban Settings.- Research on Locus of Control and Rural Life.- Conclusion.- References.- 9 Social Psychology and Religious Fundamentalism.- The Grounding of Fundamentalism.- Historical Considerations.- Where Are the Fundamentalists?.- Church Attendance and Religiosity.- Education and Religiosity.- Blessed Are the Poor?.- Liberalizing Factors.- Compassion and Prejudice.- Association Patterns.- Fundamentalism: Old or New?.- References.- 10 The Quality of Life in Rural and Urban America.- Subjective Indicators of Rural and Urban Quality of Life.- Objective Indicators of Rural and Urban Quality of Life.- Economic Indicators.- Services and Facilities.- Environmental Quality.- Social Indicators.- Conclusions.- References.- 11 Needs Assessments in Rural Areas: Issues and Problems.- Needs-Assessment Techniques.- Problem.- Desire.- Solution.- Needs Assessments in Rural Areas.- Problems in Rural Needs Assessments.- Reliability and Validity of Techniques.- Relation between Community Residents and Mental Health Professionals.- Conclusion.- References.- 12 Problems in Program Development and the Development of Alternatives.- Overview.- Background.- The Problem in the Process.- The Person.- The Rural Community Psychologist.- The Service Provider.- The Community Psychologist.- The Situation.- The Interactive Process.- The Development of Alternatives.- Paraprofessional and Volunteer Programs in Rural Areas.- The Development of Alternatives.- Implications for Future Directions.- Social-Communication Ecology.- Utilization of Rural Geography.- Training: Developing Alternatives.- The Rural Network: A Proposal.- Some Concluding Thoughts.- References.- 13 Models of Service Delivery.- Issues in Rural Service Delivery.- The Models.- Outpatient Clinical Services.- Emergency Services and Crisis Intervention.- Transitional Care.- Consultation.- Aftercare-Community Support Programs.- Mental Health Services in Primary Health Care.- The Model of Alternatives to Clinical Care.- The Characteristics of Alternative Care Contrasted with the Characteristics of Clinical Care.- Individual and Community Change.- References.- 14 Child Abuse: a Review with Special Focus on an Ecological Approach in Rural Communities.- Definitions of Child Abuse.- Child Abuse as a Psychiatric Problem.- Child Abuse as a Sociological Problem.- Societal, Institutional, and Familial Abuse.- Demographic Variables.- Effects of Stress.- Relationship between Social Isolation and Abuse.- Child Abuse as an Ecological Problem.- The Rural Context.- Linkages between Abusive Families and the Community.- Stress in the Rural Environment.- The Role of Family Support in the Rural South.- Rural Isolation.- Conclusion.- References.- 15 Home-Based Early Intervention.- Rationale.- The AEL Experiment.- Characteristics of Rural Appalachians.- Demographics: Then and Now,..- Inferred Child-Rearing Practices.- The Psychosocial Interior of the Family.- Generalizability to the Region.- HOPE: An Early Intervention Strategy.- Overview of Program Rationale and Strategy.- Contribution of Daily Television Series.- The Home-Visitor Role.- The Classroom or Group Experience.- Parent Participation and Reactions.- HOPE as Primary Prevention.- Immediate Program Effects.- Parent Involvement in Children’s Early Learning and Development.- Children’s Performance on Cognitive Measures.- Children’s Curiosity and Social Development.- Effects on “At-Risk” Children.- Enduring Program Effects: Long-Term Follow-Up.- Effect on Families.- Effects on Children’s School Performance.- Effects on Children’s Social and Emotional Adjustment.- Unanswered Questions.- Replication Phase and Kindergarten Comparison.- Selection of Sites.- Implementation Requirements and Process.- Results.- Summary of Study’s Scope and Effects.- Implications for Working with Rural Parents.- References.- 16 Community Psychology and Rural Legal Systems.- Problems of Rural Judicial Administration.- Familiarity.- Professional Recruitment and Training.- Lack of Social Services.- Summary.- Patterns of Rural Crime.- Implications for Community Psychology.- Dispute Processing in Rural Communities.- Implications for Community Psychology.- Legal Socialization in Rural Communities.- Implications for Community Psychology.- Summary.- References.- 17 The Energy Crisis and Behavioral Science: a Conceptual Framework for Large-Scale Intervention.- Why is Energy a Topic for Rural Psychology?.- An Interdisciplinary Large-Scale Framework.- Why Behavioral Science?.- Target Behaviors.- Behavioral Strategies: Antecedents.- Behavioral Strategies: Consequences.- Behavioral Applications.- Equipment Efficiency.- A Framework for Organizing Community Action.- References.- 18 Epilogue: Some Research Questions.- Methodological and Conceptual Issues.- Specific Areas of Research.- Family Interaction.- Cognitive and Linguistic Development.- Environmental Perception and Aesthetics.- Sense of Efficacy and Personal Control.- Service Delivery Issues.- Rural Psychology and Social Change.- Why a Rural Psychology?.- References.

Rural Psychology

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Rural Psychology

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Taschenbuch

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eBook

eBook

ab Fr. 109.90

Details

Einband

Taschenbuch

Erscheinungsdatum

10.11.2011

Herausgeber

Alan W. Childs

Verlag

Springer US

Seitenzahl

442

Beschreibung

Details

Einband

Taschenbuch

Erscheinungsdatum

10.11.2011

Herausgeber

Alan W. Childs

Verlag

Springer US

Seitenzahl

442

Maße (L/B/H)

22.9/15.2/2.4 cm

Gewicht

661 g

Auflage

Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1983

Sprache

Englisch

ISBN

978-1-4613-3514-6

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  • Rural Psychology
  • 1 Ruralness as a Psychological Construct.- Definitions of Rural.- Rural Values and Attitudes.- Manning Theory.- Isolation.- The Contents of This Volume.- References.- 2 Characteristics of Rural America.- Demographic Characteristics.- Definitions.- Population.- Geographic Distribution.- Education, Occupation, and Income.- Summary.- Rural Social Institutions.- Economy.- Government.- Education.- Family.- Rural Social Organization.- Rural Communities.- Rural-Urban Differences.- Social Discord in Rural Appalachian Communities.- Conclusions.- References.- 3 Interaction in Rural Families.- Characteristics of Rural Families.- Familism.- Analgesic Subculture Model.- Family Dominance Patterns.- Parenting.- Education.- Implications of Findings.- Familism.- Parenting.- Family Dominance Patterns.- Conclusions.- References.- 4 Cross-Cultural Research in Psychological Development in Rural Communities.- Cross-Cultural Findings on Rural-Urban Differences in Cognitive Growth.- Piagetian Research.- Sorting and Classification.- Memory Tasks.- Linguistic Development.- Summary.- Another View of Rural-Urban Differences.- Cognitive Development in Three Norwegian Subcultures.- Cognitive Development in Three Hungarian Subcultures.- Discussion: Rural and Urban Patterns of Development.- Norway and Hungary.- Conclusions.- References.- 5 Issues of Linguistic Development in Rural Subcultures in the United States.- The Basis of Difference.- Language Learning and Rural Subcultures.- Linguistic Structure.- Language Socialization.- Institutionalized Discontinuity.- Conclusion.- References.- 6 Is there a Psychology of the Rural Aged?.- What Is Rural? Who Are the Rural Aged?.- Deficiencies in Definitions of Rural Aged.- Differences between Rural and Nonrural Aged.- Independence, Dependence, and Isolation.- Need for and Availability of Services.- Housing.- Income.- How They See It.- Loneliness.- Is Rurality An Important Variable?.- Environments and Adaptations.- Understanding the Rural Aging.- References.- 7 Environmental Perception and Cognition in Rural Contexts.- Spatial Cognition.- Structural Elements of Cognitive Maps.- Variations in Cognitive Maps.- Spatial Cognition in Nonurban Settings.- Research Directions.- Perception of Natural Hazards.- Perception of Risk.- Choices in Response to Natural Hazards.- Research Directions.- Scenic Quality Analysis.- Scenic Quality Criterion Measures.- Predictors of Scenic Quality.- Related Issues.- Research Directions.- Concluding Remarks.- References.- 8 Locus of Control and the Rural Experience.- The Locus of Control Construct and Its Cognates.- The Shaping of Causal Expectancies and Their Ramifications.- Rural and Urban Settings.- Research on Locus of Control and Rural Life.- Conclusion.- References.- 9 Social Psychology and Religious Fundamentalism.- The Grounding of Fundamentalism.- Historical Considerations.- Where Are the Fundamentalists?.- Church Attendance and Religiosity.- Education and Religiosity.- Blessed Are the Poor?.- Liberalizing Factors.- Compassion and Prejudice.- Association Patterns.- Fundamentalism: Old or New?.- References.- 10 The Quality of Life in Rural and Urban America.- Subjective Indicators of Rural and Urban Quality of Life.- Objective Indicators of Rural and Urban Quality of Life.- Economic Indicators.- Services and Facilities.- Environmental Quality.- Social Indicators.- Conclusions.- References.- 11 Needs Assessments in Rural Areas: Issues and Problems.- Needs-Assessment Techniques.- Problem.- Desire.- Solution.- Needs Assessments in Rural Areas.- Problems in Rural Needs Assessments.- Reliability and Validity of Techniques.- Relation between Community Residents and Mental Health Professionals.- Conclusion.- References.- 12 Problems in Program Development and the Development of Alternatives.- Overview.- Background.- The Problem in the Process.- The Person.- The Rural Community Psychologist.- The Service Provider.- The Community Psychologist.- The Situation.- The Interactive Process.- The Development of Alternatives.- Paraprofessional and Volunteer Programs in Rural Areas.- The Development of Alternatives.- Implications for Future Directions.- Social-Communication Ecology.- Utilization of Rural Geography.- Training: Developing Alternatives.- The Rural Network: A Proposal.- Some Concluding Thoughts.- References.- 13 Models of Service Delivery.- Issues in Rural Service Delivery.- The Models.- Outpatient Clinical Services.- Emergency Services and Crisis Intervention.- Transitional Care.- Consultation.- Aftercare-Community Support Programs.- Mental Health Services in Primary Health Care.- The Model of Alternatives to Clinical Care.- The Characteristics of Alternative Care Contrasted with the Characteristics of Clinical Care.- Individual and Community Change.- References.- 14 Child Abuse: a Review with Special Focus on an Ecological Approach in Rural Communities.- Definitions of Child Abuse.- Child Abuse as a Psychiatric Problem.- Child Abuse as a Sociological Problem.- Societal, Institutional, and Familial Abuse.- Demographic Variables.- Effects of Stress.- Relationship between Social Isolation and Abuse.- Child Abuse as an Ecological Problem.- The Rural Context.- Linkages between Abusive Families and the Community.- Stress in the Rural Environment.- The Role of Family Support in the Rural South.- Rural Isolation.- Conclusion.- References.- 15 Home-Based Early Intervention.- Rationale.- The AEL Experiment.- Characteristics of Rural Appalachians.- Demographics: Then and Now,..- Inferred Child-Rearing Practices.- The Psychosocial Interior of the Family.- Generalizability to the Region.- HOPE: An Early Intervention Strategy.- Overview of Program Rationale and Strategy.- Contribution of Daily Television Series.- The Home-Visitor Role.- The Classroom or Group Experience.- Parent Participation and Reactions.- HOPE as Primary Prevention.- Immediate Program Effects.- Parent Involvement in Children’s Early Learning and Development.- Children’s Performance on Cognitive Measures.- Children’s Curiosity and Social Development.- Effects on “At-Risk” Children.- Enduring Program Effects: Long-Term Follow-Up.- Effect on Families.- Effects on Children’s School Performance.- Effects on Children’s Social and Emotional Adjustment.- Unanswered Questions.- Replication Phase and Kindergarten Comparison.- Selection of Sites.- Implementation Requirements and Process.- Results.- Summary of Study’s Scope and Effects.- Implications for Working with Rural Parents.- References.- 16 Community Psychology and Rural Legal Systems.- Problems of Rural Judicial Administration.- Familiarity.- Professional Recruitment and Training.- Lack of Social Services.- Summary.- Patterns of Rural Crime.- Implications for Community Psychology.- Dispute Processing in Rural Communities.- Implications for Community Psychology.- Legal Socialization in Rural Communities.- Implications for Community Psychology.- Summary.- References.- 17 The Energy Crisis and Behavioral Science: a Conceptual Framework for Large-Scale Intervention.- Why is Energy a Topic for Rural Psychology?.- An Interdisciplinary Large-Scale Framework.- Why Behavioral Science?.- Target Behaviors.- Behavioral Strategies: Antecedents.- Behavioral Strategies: Consequences.- Behavioral Applications.- Equipment Efficiency.- A Framework for Organizing Community Action.- References.- 18 Epilogue: Some Research Questions.- Methodological and Conceptual Issues.- Specific Areas of Research.- Family Interaction.- Cognitive and Linguistic Development.- Environmental Perception and Aesthetics.- Sense of Efficacy and Personal Control.- Service Delivery Issues.- Rural Psychology and Social Change.- Why a Rural Psychology?.- References.