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The Wow Factor

Global research compendium on the impact of the arts in education

Anne Bamford

Chapter 5: Arts education in practice (S. 73-74)
This chapter examines the issues surrounding the enactment of arts education in practice. The qualities of accomplished arts practices become apparent and are most likely to be revealed, at least in part, in the practices within education. The research indicated that while advocacy to include arts as part of education policy has largely been successful, this has not led to wide scale implementation of quality arts programmes at the school level.
This global research – by its very nature – revealed that educational systems are deeply embedded in cultural and nation specific contexts. This is especially the case as regards education in the arts. More than any other subject, the arts (itself a broad category) reflect unique cultural circumstances, and consequently, so does the teaching of the subject.
This chapter examines in detail the implementation and delivery of arts education within schools and outlines the nature of quality arts programmes. As teachers play such a pivotal role in the provision of arts education delivery, special attention is paid to issues of teacher training, including in-service professional development. The arts learning environment
- Arts education tends to be poorly resourced compared to other areas of general education
- Motivated, creative staff can compensate for under resourced programmes to produce quality outcomes
While the problems in arts education go beyond physical constraints within the classroom, the environment in which teachers must administer their arts education programmes compounds the difficulties faced in the implementation of quality art programmes. Teachers are faced with the dilemma of reconciling curriculum decision-making with the realities of contextual factors such as lack of time, space and resources. Despite this, arts educators become realists within the framework of this act of reconciliation.
As Ellis (1954: 88) notes: "Just as a sculptor works in the reality of limestone or walrus-ivory or teak, the art educator has his [sic] realities... these conditions, provoke, prevent, permit or invite him [sic] in his [sic] work." This is certainly evident in the case studies where a lack of resources – while not in itself a desirable state – did not limit the ability to conduct quality arts programmes. Art programmes were able to operate effectively with children sitting on the dirt, in dilapidated old cinemas and where paper was a luxury. Yet the ingenuity of artists and teachers should not be taken as an excuse for under funding the arts within general education.
In almost every research case study, lack of funds, inadequate resources, insufficient dedicated time and rigid structures were considered to be factors that limited the success of an arts-rich programme. This was particularly evident in economically developing countries where the demands on educational funds were considerable and the arts were often the most adversely effected in terms of limited funds.
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Weitere Formate


More than ever before, the arts are shaping and influencing our daily lives through the media and the creative industries. The arts are no longer confined to museums and theatres, but are adding value to our national economies and improving the quality of education. This has implications for arts education. However, unlike other Subjects taught at schools, the arts have rarely made their purpose clear: Why are they taught? What is good arts education? And what are the benefits of teaching creative Subjects or using creative ways to teach?

In 2004 Professor Anne Bamford conducted the first international analysis of arts education research for UNESCO, in partnership with IFACCA and the Australia Council. Comparing data and case studies from more than 60 countries, the book analyses the differences between 'education in the arts' and 'education through the arts'. While appreciating that arts programmes are embedded in their unique social and cultural contexts, Professor Bamford develops internationally comparable standards for quality arts education. In addition, she identifies a number of concrete educational, cultural, and social benefits of arts education.

This definitive work is of major interest to policy-makers, educators and artists.

Genau zur Konferenz erschien das wichtige Buch "Faktor Staunen" der australischen Wissenschaftlerin Anne Bamford, die im Auftrag der UNESCO eine erste systematische und vergleichende Sichtung des Standes kultureller Bildung weltweit erstellt hat. [...] Das Buch ist eine wichtige Informationsquelle für politische Entscheidungsträger, Bildungsfachleute und Künstler. – Christine M. Merkel in: unesco heute online. Online-Magazin der Deutschen UNESCO-Kommission, Ausgabe 3-4, März/April 2006

Professor Anne Bamford is Director of the Engine Room at the University of the Arts London and has an international reputation for her research in arts education, emerging literacies and visual communication. Through her research as a World Scholar for UNESCO, she has pursued issues of innovation, social impact and equity and diversity. She has conducted major national impact and evaluation studies for the governments of Denmark, The Netherlands, Belgium and Australia.


Einband Taschenbuch
Seitenzahl 178
Erscheinungsdatum 01.02.2006
Sprache Deutsch, Englisch
ISBN 978-3-8309-1617-8
Verlag Waxmann
Maße (L/B/H) 21/14.9/1.4 cm
Gewicht 270 g
Auflage 1


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  • 1;Contents;8
    2;Executive summary;10
    2.4;Quality Education and Education for All: The role of the arts;13
    5;Chapter 1: The arts are intrinsic;20
    5.2;Arts education involves;21
    5.3;Starting point for the research;24
    5.4;Organisation of the book;25
    6;Chapter 2: Social, political and historical context for thinking about arts education;30
    6.2;Social and historical influence on arts education;31
    6.3;Challenges in arts education;38
    7;Chapter 3: Underpinning research;42
    7.1;The data;42
    7.2;The analysis;44
    7.3;Problems concerning quantitative interpretation;45
    8;Chapter 4: The scope and nature of arts education;48
    8.2;What does art education include?;49
    8.3;Who is responsible for supporting arts education?;53
    8.4;Responsibilities for arts education policy;58
    8.5;The place of arts education in the curriculum;60
    8.6;Arts education policy;62
    8.7;The role of arts education policy in general education policy;67
    8.8;Distinction between education in the arts and education through the art;71
    9;Chapter 5: Arts education in practice;74
    9.2;The arts learning environment;74
    9.3;Responsibilities for delivery of arts education programmes;75
    9.4;Teacher education;80
    9.5;Arts education s contribution to teacher professional development;84
    10;Chapter 6: Goals and indications of quality in arts-rich education;86
    10.2;Quality Education and Education for All: The role of the arts;87
    10.3;Characteristics of quality arts education;89
    11;Chapter 7: The impact of arts education;104
    11.2;The goals of arts education;104
    11.3;Arts-rich education improves achievement in the arts;105
    11.4;Arts education s contribution to improved student educational attainment and academic achievement;108
    11.5;Arts education s contribution to improved student attitude;116
    11.6;Arts education and the community;123
    11.7;Arts education, imagination and creativity;129
    11.8;Arts education, health and well-being;134
    11.9;Arts education and technology;138
    12;Chapter 8: Conclusions and future directions;140
    15;Appendix One: Copy of survey;158
    16;Appendix Two: List of responding countries, ministries and/or organisations;173
    17;Appendix Three: Research case study titles listed by country (these are in addition to the surveys and research listed in Appendix 2);177
    18;Appendix Four: Other countries also consulted (not survey respondents);179