The summer school on "Silicon: Materials Science and Technology" was held at the Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Sicily. It was the 16th course of a series in the International School of Materials Science and Technology. The course attracted participants from all over the world. 30 lectures were presented by internationally reputed experts in the field. The proceedings include all the lecture topics of the course. Short notes on the scientific work of the attendees are integrated with the main papers. The semiconductor material silicon is of paramount importance in micro electronics. The various aspects of the silicon materials science and its technol ogy were critically reviewed and the forseeable future developments of devices and integrated circuits were discussed during the two weeks of the course. The topics ranged from the fundamental physics to the applied science of processing technology and device fabrication covering crystal growth, processing technol ogy, defects, measurement methods, thin films, and device problems. The course brought together theoretical and experimental physicists and engineers from universities, research institutes and industry. The unique setting of the Ettore Majorana Centre in the ancient town of Erice created a friendly atmosphere for fruitful scientific exchange. Long dis cussions continued over lunch and only ended late at night in the wine cellar of the school.